Make your own free website on Tripod.com

Aviation Sri Lanka 

Home
Up

 

 

 

AIR TRAFFIC RULES AND SERVICES (RAC)

 

INTRODUCTION

 

1. RESPONSIBLE AUTHORITY

 

1.1 The authority responsible for the overall administration of air traffic services provided for international civil aviation in the territory of Sri Lanka is the Director of the Department of Civil Aviation acting under the authority of the Ministry of Defense.

 

 

2. AREA OF RESPONSIBILITY

 

2.1 Air Traffic Services as indicated in the following paragraphs are provided within the Colombo FIR.

 

3. AIR TRAFFIC SERVICES

 

3.1 With the exception of military aerodromes, Air Traffic Services in the Colombo FIR are provided by the Air Traffic Services Division of the Airport and Aviation Services (SL) Ltd. under the delegated authority of the Director of Civil Aviation, Sri Lanka.

 

3.2 The airspace of the territory of Sri Lanka including adjacent waters comprises the Colombo FIR (Sec. RAG 3-1.1). Air Traffic Control is exercised :

 

(a) In the Colombo Terminal Control Area (TMA) ;

 

(b) On Airways covering the main ATS routes and within control zones at controlled aerodromes equipped with approach and landing aids.

 

3.3 Flight information service and alerting service within the Colombo FIR and air traffic control services in control areas are provided by one Centre (ACC Colombo~ . There is no distinction between upper and lower airspace. The axis of each airway is constituted by a line connecting reference points identified normally by radio navigational facilities.

 

3.4 Air traffic control and Alerting Services within Control Zones (listed in RAC 3-3.1) are provided by the Approach Control Unit or the Aerodrome Control Tower serving the aerodrome.

 

3.4.1 Flight information service and alerting service within the FIR, air traffic advisory service along ATS routes and air traffic control service in the Colombo Terminal Ar6a (TMA) and along Airways are provided by the Colombo Area Control Centre.

 

3.4.2 Flight information service. alerting service and air traffic advisory service within Male FIR (excluding Male TMA) are provided by the Colombo Area Control Centre.

 

3.5 Radar Service is an integral part of the ATS system. A description of radar services and procedures is provided in part RAC 1. Additional procedures applicable in Colombo -7-MA are contained in part RAC 4.

 

3.6 The description of the airspace designated for air traffic services purpose is found in several tables, all forming part of RAC 3.

 

3.7 In general, air traffic rules and procedures in force and the organization of air traffic services are in conformity with ICAO Standards, Recommended Practices and Procedures. There are no outstanding differences between national and international rules and procedures.

 

3.8 A few prohibited areas, restricted areas and danger areas are established within Colombo FIR. These areas are shown in RAC 5. Activation of areas subject to intermittent activity is notified well in advance by NOTAM, giving reference to the area only by its identification.

4.CO-ORDINATION BETWEEN THE OPERATOR AND ATS

 

4.1 Co-ordination between the operator and air traffic services is effected in accordance with 2.13 of Annex 11, and 2.1.1.4 and 2.1.1.5 of Part V111 of the PANS-RAC (DOC 4444 RAC/501).

 

5.MINIMUM FLIGHT ALTITUDES

 

5.1The minimum flight altitudes on the ATS routes as listed in RAC 3-2. 1 to RAC 3-2.19 have been determined so as to ensure &t least 300m (1000 ft) vertical clearance above the highest obstacle within 18 km on each side of the centre line of the route. However, where the angular divergence of the navigational aid signal in combination with the distance between the navigational aids could result in the aircraft being more than 8 km on either side of the centre line, the 18 km protection limit is increased by the extent to which the divergence is more than 8 km from the centre line.

 

 

rules of the air and air traffic services procedure

 

general requirements

 

1 FLIGHT RULES

 

1.1 Aircraft in flight or operating on the maneuvering area of an aerodrome shall comply with the general flight rules applicable to the operation of aircraft. Additionally, aircraft in flight shall comply with the instrument flight rules (IFR) or the visual flight rules (VFR). An aircraft operating between the hours of sunset and sunrise, irrespective of weather conditions, shall comply with IFR requirements Aircraft operating in controlled airspace shall comply with any request, clearance or instruction issued by ATC, or shall immediately advise ATC if unable to comply.

 

2.FLIGHT PLAN REQUIREMENTS

 

2.1 A flight plan filed in complete in the ICAO Flight Plan Form shall be submitted to ATC by the pilot-in-command or his representative in respect of the following flights:

 

(a) any flight or portion thereof to be provided with air traffic control service.

 

(b) any lFR flight within advisory airspace.

 

(c) any flight within or over the territory of Sri Lanka or along designated routes, when so required by the appropriate ATS authority to facilitate the provision of flight information, alerting and search and rescue services.

 

(d) any flight within or over the Sri Lanka territory, or along designated routes, when so required by the appropriate ATS authority to facilitate co-ordination with appropriate military units or with air traffic services units in adjacent states in order to avoid the possible need for interception for the purpose of identification.

 

(e) any flight across international borders.

 

2.2 The pilot-in-command or his designated representative shall submit the flight plan at least One hour (I hr) before the estimated off block time to the nearest ATC unit

 

2.3 The pilot-in-command or his designated representative is required to state the total number of persons on board (i.e. passengers plus crew) in the flight plan,

 

2.4 In addition, pilots are required to pass the actual total number of persons on board (POB) to the Control Tower when requesting engine start-up.

 

2.5 In the event of a delay of Thirty (30) minutes in excess of the estimated off-block time, the pilot- in -command or his designated ,representative shall notify the ATC of the revised EOBT Where applicable, the flight plan should be amended or a new flight plan submitted and the old flight plan cancelled.

 

2.6 A pilot-in-command may change from an IFR flight plan to VFR flight plan by reporting -CANCELLING MY IFR FLIGHT" when weather conditions indicate that the remainder of the flight can be conducted under VFR. But this will not relieve the pilot from the responsibility of adhering to #* instructions issued by ATC so as to keep the other aircraft clear of his flight.

 

3.AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL CLEARANCES

 

3.1 An Air Traffic Control Clearance is an authorization for an aircraft to proceed under conditions specified by an air  traffic control unit.

 

3.2 An air traffic control contain the following elements of information.

 

 

 

(a)aircraft identification

 

(b)clearance limit and route instruction

 

(c)level assignment

 

(d)departure instruction when applicable

 

(e)type of approach

 

(f)clearance expiry time

 

(g)any other special instructions and information .

 

3.3 Clearances are based on known traffic conditions which affect safety in aircraft operation. Such traffic conditions include not only aircraft in the air and on the maneuvering area over which control is being exercised, but also any vehicular traffic or other obstructions not permanently installed on the maneuvering area in use.

 

3.4 An air traffic control clearance shall be obtained from the ATS unit concerned prior to operating in controlled airspace. Aircraft in flight shall follow the procedure specified in the following para 3.8 in obtaining an ATC clearance.

 

3.5 A pilot-in-command operating under VFR in controlled airspace shall not enter instrument meteorological conditions without first obtaining' an ATC clearance. Until such clearance is received, the aircraft must remain in VIVIC.

 

3.6 The pilot- in-command having acknowledged an air traffic control clearance shall not deviate from the provisions of the clearance unless an amended clearance has been obtained.

 

3.7 If an air traffic control clearance is not suitable to the pilot-in-command of an aircraft, he may request, and if practicable, obtain an amended clearance.

 

 

3.8 Crossing and Joining Flights

 

3.8.1 Aircraft in flight wishing to cross or join an airway, controlled airspace or advisory route should obtain an ATC clearance at least Twenty (20) minutes prior to intended crossing or joining.

 

3.8.2 An in-flight request to cross an airway, controlled airspace or advisory route shall provide the following information to ATC.

 

(a)aircraft identification

 

(b)aircraft type

 

(c)Track (True)

 

(d)place and estimated time of intended crossing

 

(e)desired crossing level

 

(f)ground speed

 

3.8.3 An in-flight request to join an airway or advisory route shall provide following information to ATC.

 

(a)aircraft identification

 

(b)aircraft type

 

(c)position

 

(d)level and flight conditions

 

(e)estimated time at point of joining

 

(f)desired level on airway or advisory route

 

(g)route and point of first intended landing

 

(h)true airspeed

 

3.8.4 The selected crossing or joining point should, whenever possible, be associated with a radio facility or a designated reporting point to facilitate ATC in the assessment of separation.

 

 

3.9ATC clearance for Traffic on ATS Routes G462 and R461 (NW of Colombo)

 

3.9.1 Due to the lack of adequate co-ordination facilities between Madras and Colombo ATC centres, the following procedures have been agreed to comply with, by the two centres for traffic operating on G462 and R461 NW of Colombo.

 

3.9. 1. (a)  Traffic departing NW of Colombo on G462 and R461 will be cleared to FL280 by Colombo ATC Centre with instructions to contact Madras for further clearance to climb to their cruising levels.

 

3.9.1. (b)   Traffic inbound on G462 and R461 NW of Colombo will be cleared by Madras ATC Centre to descend not below FL290 and be instructed to contact Colombo ATC for further clearance to descend.

 

3.10Transfer of ATS Responsibilities on ATS Route G465

 

3.10.1Traffic operating in ATS route 0465' NE of Colombo will be subject to the following procedures in regard to co-ordination with Madras ATC centre.

 

3.10.1 (a) Eastbound traffic on G465Direction : Colombo to Port Blair:

 

(i)Boundary estimates and FPL messages in respect of traffic departing Colombo along G465 will be transmitted to Madras ATCC with priority DD.

 

(ii)No changes in the flight planned cruising levels specified in the FPL and EST message will be authorized by Colombo ATCC after departure.

 

(iii) Aircraft requesting changes in flight levels will be instructed to contact Madras ATCC on HIF for level change authorization.

 

(VI)          Aircraft shall be instructed to contact Madras and to change ATS responsibility to Madras, Fifteen (15) minutes prior to estimating the Colombo/ Madras FIR Boundary.

 

3.10.1 (b) Westbound traffic on G465direction: Port Blair to Colombo;

 

(i) Colombo ATCC will accept responsibility for west bound traffic on G465 from Madras ATCC at the Cok3mboi Madras FIR Boundary.

 

4. ESSEWLAIL TRAFFIC INFORMATION

 

4.1 Essential traffic is the controlled traffic to which the provision of separation by ATC is applicable but, which in relation to a particular controlled traffic, does not have the required minimum separation.

 

4.2 Essential traffic information shall be issued to controlled flights concerned whenever they constitute essential traffic to each other.

 

4.3 Essential traffic information shall include:

 

(a) Direction of flight of aircraft concerned

 

(b) Type of aircraft

 

(c) Level (s) of aircraft concerned and estimated time of passing or if this is not available, estimated time of arrival for the reporting point nearest to where the level will be crossed.

 

5.CHANGING LEVELS

 

5.1 An aircraft may be required to change level ,at a time, place, or rate specified by ATC. The pilot-in-command shall effect a change of level as soon as possible but not later than One minute after the time specified. The rate of change of level shall be the specific rate or if no rate has been specified, a rate suitable for the type of aircraft.

 

5.2 When. required, the pilot-in-command may be instructed to reach an assigned level by a specified time or position,. However, the pilot-in command shall advise the ATC immediately if he is doubtful whether the assigned level can be reached as instructed.

 

5.3 A pilot-in-command shall report

 

(a) At the time of leaving a level for a newly assigned level

 

(b) When leaving or passing through such other levels as may be specified by ATC

 

(c) On reaching an assigned level

 

5.4 A pilot- in-command shall read back level clearance.

 

6. POSITION REPORTS

 

6.1 The pilot-in-command shall report position to the Colombo ACC on the appropriate VHF RTF or when outside VHF RTF range, the pilot-in-command shall report position on HF RTF

 

6.2 The pilot-in-command shall report position as soon as possible after the aircraft has passed each designated reporting point.

 

6.3 The meteorological information should also be included in position reports made on passing the designated ATS/MET reporting points.

 

6.4. Designated reporting points, ATS/MET reporting points for the various established ATS routes are listed in RAC 3-2.

 

6.5 A position report shall comprise the following g elements of information.

 

(a) Section I (position information)

 

(i) Aircraft identification

 

(ii) Position (name of reporting point or position)

 

(iii) Time (at the reporting point or position)

 

(iv) Flight level or Altitude

 

(v) Next position and time over

 

(b) Section 11 (Operational Information)

 

(vi) Estimated time of arrival

 

(vii) Endurance

 

(c) Section III (Meteorological information)

 

(viii) Air temperature

 

(ix) Wind

 

(x) Turbulence

 

(xi) Aircraft icing

 

(xii) Supplementary information.

 

6.6 Air-Reports

 

6.6.1 Position reports may be given in the form of an air-report, where operational and/or routine meteorological information is to be reported.

 

6.6.2 Air-reports are classified into two categories i.e.

 

(1) Routine Air-report or AIREP

 

(11) -Special Air-report or AIREP SPECIAL

 

6.6.2.1 Routine air-report shall carry the designator "ARP” when transmitted in telegraphy and "Airep" when spoken in radio telephony.

 

6.6.2.2 Special air-report shell carry the designator "ARS" when transmitted in telegraphy and "Airep Special" when spoken in radio telephony.

 

6.6.3 If a phenomenon warranting the making of a special air-report is observed at or near the time or place where a routine air-report is to be made, a report containing the phenomenon warranting the making of a special air-report shall be transmitted in accordance with the examples given below. It is incumbent on the pilot to decide whether the air-report is a routine "AIREP” or a "AIREP SPECIAL".

 

 

6.6.3.1 Following are the examples of radio telephony and telegraphic presentation of a routine air-report (AIREP) and a special air-report (AIREP SPECIAL).

 

(a)Routine Air-report Radio telephony

 

AIREP AIR LANKA TREE WUN TOO POSITION KIMOP WUN TOO FOWER TREE FLIGHT LEVEL TOO NINER ZERO NEXT POSITION PAMTO WUN TREE WUN FOWER ENDURANCE ZERO FIFE TREE ZERO TEMPERATURE MINUS FOWER SIX WIND TOO FOWER ZERO DEGREES SIX FIFE TURBULENCE MODERATE SCATTERED CUMULONIMBUS TOP FLIGHT LEVEL TOO SEVEN ZERO.

 

Telegraph

 

ARP ALK 312 KIMOP -1-243 F290 PAMTO 1314 FUEL 0530 MS 46 240/65 TUBB MOD SCT CB TOP F270.

 

(b)Special Air-report

Radio telephony

 

AIREP SPECIAL AIRLANKA WUN ZERO WUN POSITION MALSO AT WUN ZERO ZERO NINER WUN TOO TOUSAND FEET NEXT POSITION MALE AT WUN ZERO TREE SIX TURBULENCE SEVERE.

 

Telegraph:

 

ARS ALK101 MALSO 1009 1200OFT VRMM 1036 TURB SEV.

 

7.DIVERSION

 

7.1 Diversion is the act of flying to an aerodrome other than the planned destination with the intention of landing there.

 

7.2 Normally a diversion is made when any of the following circumstances occur at the planned destination.

 

 

(a) The weather is below the operating company minima.

 

(b) There are obstructions on the landing or maneuvering area constituting a hazard to a landing aircraft, and which cannot be cleared within a reasonable time.

 

(c) There is likely to be an unacceptable delay to landing.

 

(d) There is failure of an essential instrument approach aid to effect a safe landing.

 

7.3 A diversion may also be made due to an operation al/technical reason of an aircraft in flight,

 

7.4 A diversion may be initiated by the pilot-in-command or the operator or under certain circumstances, by ATC.

 

7.5 A pilot-in-command deciding to initiate a diversion ~hall notify ATC who in turn will notify-,

 

(a) The aerodrome of destination

 

(b) Alternate aerodrome

 

(c) Relevant Air Tariff Control Centres

 

8. AIR TRAFFIC INCIDENT REPORTING PROCEDURE

 

8.1 Air Traffic Incident Reporting procedure applicable within the Colombo FIR are in conformity with ICAO recommended procedures in ICAO DOC 4444 - RAC/501.

 

 

8.2 "Air Traffic Incident" is used to mean a serious occurrence involving air traffic such as:

 

(a) Near collision

 

(b) Serious difficulty caused by:

 

(i) faulty procedures or lack of compliance with the applicable procedures.

 

(ii) - failure of ground facilities.

 

 

8.3 Air traffic incidents are designated and identified in reports as follows :

 

(a) NEAR COLLISION - self-explanatory.

 

(b) PROCEDURAL - when due to faulty procedures or lack of compliance with procedures.

 

(c) FACILITY - when caused due to failure of ground facilities.

 

8.4 Use of the Air Traffic Incident Report Form

 

8.4.1 Sri Lanka Civil Aviation Forms (ATC/17) intended for use in reporting air traffic incidents by ATS units and pilots are available at all ATS units and ATS reporting offices.

 

8.4.2 Air Traffic Incident Report Form shall be used by;

 

(a) Pilots for filing a report on an air traffic incident after arrival, or in confirmation of a report made previously over VHF or HF/RT channels during flight.

 

(b) ATC personnel, for recording an air traffic incident report received by radio, telephone or teleprinter.

 

8.5 Reporting of Air Traffic Incidents by Pilots

 

8.5.1 A pilot should proceed as follows regarding an incident which he is or has been involved.

 

(a)     During flight, use the appropriate air/ground frequency for reporting an incident of major significance, particularly if it involves other aircraft, so as to permit the facts to be ascertained immediately;

 

(b) As promptly as possible after landing submit a completed "Air Traffic Incident Report Form":

 

(I)                      for confirming a report of an incident made initially as in (a) above, or for making the initial report on such an incident if it had not been possible to report it by radio.

      (ij)           for reporting an incident which did not require immediate notification at the time of occurrence.

 

8.5.2 An initial report made by radio should contain the following information.

 

A - Type of incident, e.g. near collision.

 

F - Radio call sign of aircraft making report. 4

 

J - Position, heading or route, true airspeed.

 

K - Flight Level, Altitude or height and aircraft altitude.

 

L - IMC or VMC.

 

M - Time of incident in UTC.

 

N - Description of other aircraft, if relevant.

 

Brief details of incident, including when appropriate sighting distance and miss distance.

 

8.5.3 The confirmatory report on an incident of major significance initially reported by radio, or the initial report on any other incident, should be submitted. to ' the ATS Reporting Office of the aerodrome of first landing, on the "Air Traffic Incident Report Form". The pilot should complete the details of the initial reports as ,necessary.

 

8.5.4 All air traffic incidents should be reported by radio as soon as possible after the occurrence, and the confirmatory reports be filed ,on landing to facilitate the preservation and production of records for investigation.

 

9. FLIGHT INFORMATION SERVICE

 

9.1 Flight information service is provided by Colombo FIC to all flights operating within Colombo FIR.

 

9.2 Flight information service provided by the FIC includes the provision of

 

(i)                    Present and forecast weather conditions at KATUNAYAKE/Colombo, RATMALANA/Colombo and Madras

    aerodromes.

 

(ii)         Collision hazards to aircraft operating outside control area and control zones.

 

(iii)     The state of serviceability of navigational aids at KATUNAYAKE/Colombo and RATMALANA/Colombo aerodromes.

 

(iv)                        The state of KATUNAYAKE/ Colombo and RATIVIALANA/Colombo aerodromes and associated facilities and,

 

(v)  For flight over water areas, in so far practicable and when requested by pilot, any available information such as radio call sign, position, true track, speed etc. of surface vessels in the area.

 

9.3 Pilots may use the traffic information provided by the FIC for avoiding collision risks but it should not be used for the purposes of separation as Flight Information Service is not a direct Air Traffic Control Service.

 

 

 

10. AIR TRAFFIC ADVISORY SERVICE

 

10.1 Air traffic advisory service is provided in an area or airspace where positive control cannot be guaranteed due to poor communication and other attendant factors. Information on known traffic& operating in the advisory airspace is passed to assist the pilot-in-command, to avoid collision with other aircraft.

 

10.2 Air traffic advisory service does not provide for terrain clearance which is the responsibility of the pilot-in-command.

 

10.3 There however, no obligation on the part of a pilot-in-command to make use of this service and it does not therefore, afford the degree of safety and cannot assume the same responsibilities as air traffic control service in respect of the avoidance of collisions, since there may be unknown or unreported traffic operating in the advisory area or airspace.

 

10.4 Air traffic advisory service shall deliver only "advisory information" using the words. “advise" or "suggest" when a course of action is proposed to an aircraft.

 

10.5 It is for the pilot-in-command to decide whether or not to comply with the advice or suggestion received and to inform the unit providing, air traffic advisory service (Colombo ACC) without delay, of its decision.

 

10.6 Although a flight within an advisory area or along an advisory route will not be subjected to an air traffic clearance, the pilot-in-command of such: flight shall not effect a change in the current flight plan or flight progress until he has notified the appropriate ATS unit.

 

10.7 Air traffic advisory service is provided by Colombo ACC (Call Sign: Colombo Control) on certain ATS routes within Colombo FIR but outside Colombo TIVIA. The routes and areas along and within which' air traffic advisory service is provided are shown in RAC 3-2.

 

11.RADIO COMMUNICATION FAILURE

 

11.1 In t-he event of complete radio communication failure in an aircraft, the pilot is required to adopt the procedures laid down below.

 

11.2 The aircraft shall comply with the radio communication failure procedures of Annex 10, Vol. 11, and with such of the following procedures as are appropriate. In addition, the aircraft when forming part of the aerodrome traffic at a controlled aerodrome, shall keep a watch for such instructions as may*be issued by visual signals.

 

11.3 If in visual meteorological conditions, the aircraft shall:

 

(a) continue to fly in visual meteorological conditions,

 

(b) land at the nearest suitable aerodrome, and

 

(c) report its arrival by the most expeditious means to the appropriate air traffic control unit.

 

 

11.4 In instrument meteorological conditions or 1.4 when weather conditions are such that it does not appear feasible to complete the flight in VIVIC the aircraft shall:

 

(a) proceed according to the current flight plan to the appropriate designated navigational aid serving the aerodrome of intended landing (see Note 1) and when required to ensure compliance with (b) below, hold over this aid until commencement of descent.

 

(b)      commence descent from the navigational aid specified in (a) at or as close as possible to, the expected approach time last received and acknowledged; or if no expected approach time has been received and acknowledged, at, or as close as possible to, the estimated time of arrival as indicated in the filed flight plan and revised in accordance with the current flight plan.

 

(c) complete a normal instrument approach procedure as specified for the designated navigational aid; and

 

(d) land, if possible, within thirty minutes after the estimated time of arrival specified in (b) or the last acknowledged expected approach time, whichever is later.

 

Note 1:

 

If the clearance for the levels covers only part of the route, the aircraft shall be expected to maintain the last assigned and acknowledged, cruising level(s) to the point(s) specified in the clearance and thereafter the cruising level (s) in current flight plan.

 

Note 2:

 

The provisions of air traffic control service to other flights operating in the airspace concerned will be based on the assumption that an aircraft experiencing , a radio communication failure will comply with the aforesaid rules.

 

12. FAILURE OF NAVIGKFION EQUIPMENT

 

12.1 If part of an aircraft's radio navigation equipment tails but two-way communication can still be maintained with ATC, the pilot is required to inform ATC of the failure and report his flight level or altitude and the approximate position. When radar is available, subject to work load, ATC will provide navigational assistance to Pilots of aircraft within Radar coverage.

 

13. UNLAWFUL. INTFRFERENCE

 

13.1 An aircraft which is being subjected to unlawful interference shall endeavor to notify;

 

(1) the appropriate ATS unit of this fact,

 

(2) any significant circumstances associated therewith and

 

(3) any deviation from the current flight plan necessitated by the circumstances,

 

in order to enable the ATS unit to give priority to the aircraft, and to minimize conflict with other aircraft.

 

Note 1:

 

In any case, ATS units will endeavor to recognize any indication of such unlawful interference, and will attend promptly to requests by the aircraft. Information pertinent to the safe conduct of the flight will continue to be transmitted and necessary action will be taken to expedite the conduct of all phases of the flight.

 

Note 2:

 

Action to be taken by SSR equipped aircraft which are being subject to unlawful interference is contained in Annex 11, the PANS-RAC DOC 4444-RAC/501 and the PANS-OPS DOC 8168OPS161 1.

 

 

14. LIGHT AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS RATMALANA/COLOMBO

 

14.1 VFR Operations

 

14.1.1 Light aircraft operations shall normally be conducted under VFR, within 10NM radius of RATMALANA / Colombo aerodrome.

 

14.1.2 For circuits and landings or Local ' flights of not more than 30 minutes duration, verbal flight notification is acceptable. In such cases the following information shall be provided:

 

(a) aircraft identification and type

 

(b) Name of pilot

 

(c) ETD

 

(d) flight duration

 

(e) area of flight

 

14.1.3 Light aircraft operations may be authorized at the discretion of ATC when traffic conditions permit.

 

14A.4 All light aircraft, not equipped with radio, shall watch out for, and follow any visual signals, when operating in the traffic circuit.

 

14.1.5 It is the sole responsibility of the pilots of all light aircraft not equipped with radio, to watch out for other traffic and maintain adequate separation with them.

 

14.1.6 Arriving aircraft, not equipped with radio, shall fly over the tower a - t 1000ft and do a complete circuit prior to landing, watching for light signals (if any) directed from tower.

 

14.2 IFR Operations

 

14.2.1 Requests for operation under IFIR may be approved, it the aircraft is suitably equipped for IFR -operations and the pilot is appropriately rated. The Aerodrome Controller shall be the final authority in authorizing such operations from the point of view of air traffic.

 

14.2.2 Flight notification of all IFR operations shall be given by tiling a Flight Plan prior to departure.

 

14.3 Cross Country Flights

 

14.3.1 Pilots of aircraft proceeding on cross country flights shall file a flight plan with ATC at least 'Thirty (30) minutes before the ETD. The pilot-in-command should personally present himself at the control tower and obtain briefing and clearance from the duty air traffic controller. The flight shall be conducted strictly in accordance with the clearance obtained,

 

15. MILITARY FLIGHTS

 

15.1Notification of Flights:

 

15.1.1. ATC shall be notified in advance of any operations by Sri Lanka Air Force (SLAF) aircraft which are likely to affect civil aircraft operations.

 

15.2 Separation between Military Traffic

 

15.2.1 When requested so, by the SLAF authority, reduced separation minima may be applied between SLAF aircraft operating under VFR. However, the standard separations shall be maintained between any such aircraft and any civil aircraft.

 

15.3 Formation Flights

 

15.3.1 Formation flights by SLAF aircraft flying or intending to fly under IFR will be authorized provided the aircraft of such formation's agree to maintain separation from each other visually and are all able to communicate with the formation leader.

 

15.3.2 However the formation leader shall establish and maintain communication with ATC and shall be responsible for the compliance with the conditions of the ATC clearance issued for such operations.

 

15.3.3 Military Training Areas:

 

The conditions in 15.3.2 will not apply to aircraft operating within military training areas which have been allocated.

 

16. SPECIAL PROCEDURES FOR PUSH BACK AND START AT KATUNAYAKE/COLOMBO AIRPORT.

 

16.1 Aircraft departing KATUNAYAKE/ Colombo airport shall adhere to the procedures for push back and assignment of flight levels.

 

16.2 Assignment of flight levels to departing aircraft shall be made on a first-come-first-served basis. Aircraft normally will be assigned the level requested unless an alternate level is offered after co-ordination with the adjacent ATC centres.

 

16.3 Pilots shall use the correct phraseology as specified in para 16.4 when requesting for clearance to push back in order to avoid confusion.

 

16.4 When an aircraft is ready to push back and start within Five (5) minutes, the pilot shall notify ATC using the following phraseology:

 

 

- call sign

 

- destination

 

- proposed flight level (in the flight plan) and alternate level, it any

 

- parked position

 

- POB

 

- “ready to push back and start in five minutes."

 

 

16.5 On receipt of the "ready to push back and start" call, ATC will advise the pilot of any delay and reason, and after the pre-departure co-ordination with adjacent units or centres, the ATC clearance will be issued. An alternate flight level may be given by the ATC if the flight planned level cannot be assigned.

 

16.6 Once the ATC clearance is accepted by the pilot, the aircraft must be pushed back within Five (5) minutes. The ATC clearance will be cancelled after Five (5) minutes grace period.

 

16.7 At the end of the Push back, the departing aircraft must have all engines started and be ready to taxi immediately, unless otherwise instructed by ATC.

 

16.8 An ATC clearance once issued to a departing aircraft as per para 16.5 may be cancelled under the following circumstances:

 

(a) the aircraft is unable to push back still on expiry of the grace period as per para 16.6 unless authorized by ATC

 

(b) after pushing back, the pilot advises that the aircraft is returning to the bay.

 

(c) if the aircraft is unable to continue taxiing due to an operational or technical reason.

 

16.9 ATC will inform the aircraft when a clearance is cancelled.

 

16.10 Subsequent to a cancellation of an ATC clearance already issued, the pilot of such aircraft will follow the same procedure laid down in paras 16.4 to 16.7

 

 

 

17: AIRCRAFT OVERFLYING KATUNAYAKE/COLOMBO AIRPORT

 

17.1 Domestic aircraft over flying KATUNAYAKE/Colombo below FL130 will be required to use the QNH values issued from KATUNAYAKE/Colomlbo.

 

18.FUEl DUMPING IN FLIGHT

 

18.1 Before authorizing an aircraft to dump fuel in flight, controllers will consider two important aspects of the operation, viz:

 

(a)The recommended minimum altitude from which the fuel should be dumped.

 

(b) The airspace likely to be affected by the jettisoned fuel.

 

18.2 Altitude Requirements:

 

18.2.1 Controllers will therefore recommend that aircraft dumping fuel, in other than emergency circumstances, should maintain a. minimum height" of 6000 ft. This will obviate any flammable mist developing near the ground or that humans and animals will suffer any toxic effects.

 

18.3 Airspace and Separation

 

18.3.1 The airspace around a dumping aircraft, affected by the fuel release, is known as the "Vapour Zone" and is defined as the airspace at least 1000 ft. above, 2000 feet below, 5 miles horizontally behind and 1/2 mile on either side of it.

 

18.3.2, In other than emergency circumstances, controllers will nominate an area for the dumping of fuel, because the affected aircraft will maintain radio silence during the operation.

 

18.3.3 For the purpose of providing separation all the airspace thus nominated, the selected altitude. and a full allowance for the "Vapour

 

 

Zone" shall be treated as a reserved airspace from the time dumping is expected to commence until 5 minutes after it has been completed.

 

18.4 Emergency Dumping

 

In an emergency, when the aircraft is unable to meet the above conditions, or when fuel must be ,dumped without adequate warning, controllers will make every effort to keep other aircraft clear of the "Vapour Zone"

 

 

 

RADAR SERVICES AND PROCEDURES

1. OPERATION

 

1.1 A radar unit normally operates as an integral part of the parent ATC unit and provides Radar Service to aircraft to the maximum extent practicable to meet the operational requirements subject to the following limitations:

 

i) effective radar coverage dependent on prevailing propagation conditions.

 

ii) intensity of weather clutter areas.

 

iii) the technical capability and reliability of the back up facilities to the radar.

 

iv) serviceability of communication system facilities and terminations. Viz-VHF teletalk and inter ATS unit communication capabilities.

 

v) wind speeds in excess of 120 km/hour.

 

1.2 The procedures for the provision of radar services are those listed in Part X of ICAO DOC 4444 - RAC/501 and are supplemented by procedures in this section and in any air traffic control instructions issued from time to time.

 

1.3 The radar installed does not have SSR capability at present.

 

1.4 During an aircraft under the Approach Control, aircraft shall call the radar un& "Colombo Radar".

 

2. RADAR COVERAGE

 

2.1 Colombo Approach Control Service operates:

 

Approach Radar - station at KATUNAYAKE/Colombo.

 

Range: 60 NM

 

3. APPLICATION OF RADAR CONTROL SERVICE

 

3.1Radar identification is achieved according to the provisions specified by ICAO.

 

3.2 The radar display information shall be used to provide the following general functions as an integral part of the Air Traffic Control Service.

 

(a)     maintain watch on the progress of flights in order to provide Colombo Area Control Centre and Approach Control Units with:

 

i) position information on aircraft under control.

 

ii) information on unreported traffic (aircraft with com failure).

 

iii) information on significant deviation, by aircraft from the ATC clearance issued.

 

(b) information on ' observed weather subject to limitations.

 

(c) provide radar monitoring of aircraft and vectoring identified aircraft when necessary;

 

i) to effect expeditious climb of departing traffic to cruising levels.

 

ii) for the purpose of resolving potential conflicts with other traffic.

 

Ill) to assist in their navigation in the event of unserviceability of navigational equipment or other reason..

 

iv) clear of areas of adverse weather (subject to limitations).

 

v) for expeditious descent from cruising levels in preparation for approach and landing.

 

vi) to ILS or terminal approach aids.

 

vii) to monitor VOR, NQB approaches in order to advise aircraft deviations from nominal approach paths.

 

(d) to conduct;

 

i)surveillance radar approaches terminated at 2 NM from the touch down at KATUNAYAKE/Colombo airport.

 

ii) homing and cloud break assistance for aircraft into RATMALANA/ Colombo airport subject to limitations of radar coverage capability.

 

(e) provide separation and maintain normal traffic flow when an aircraft experiences communications failure. within the area of radar coverage.

 

3.3 Radar separation minima,- applicable is 5 NM or greater at the discretion of the individual Radar Controller when the following circumstances so necessitate.

 

(a) high rates of closure between aircraft or track convergence.

 

(b) slow rates of renewal of radar information due to slow scanning rate.

 

(c) when the Radar Controller expects communications difficulty due to congestion of communication channels.

 

4. COMMUNICATIONS

 

4.1 The communication frequencies used for the provision of radar services are listed in COM 2.

 

 

5. RADAR FAILURE

 

5.1 In the event of radar failure or loss of radar identification, instructions will be issued to restore procedural separation and change to appropriate frequency if considered necessary.

 

6. RADIO FAILURE

 

6.1 In the event of controlled aircraft experiencing communication failure and is operating in an area where radar separation is applied, such radar separation shall continue to be applied. If the aircraft is one which has not been identified, the radar controller shall maintain separation between aircraft under radar control and any other unidentified aircraft observed along the expected route of the aircraft with communication failure, until it is known that the aircraft has passed through the airspace concerned or has landed elsewhere.

 

 

 

ALTIMETER SETTING PROCEDURES

 

1. INTRODUCTION

 

1.1 The altimeter setting procedures in use within the Colombo FIR conform to those contained in Part III of the ICAO Doc. 8168OPS/611. Aircraft operation and Section 12 Part 11, of PANS Doc. 4444/RAC/501.

 

1.2 These procedures, apply to all IFR flights and to all other flights which are proceeding at specific cruising levels.

 

1.3 ONH reports and temperature information for use in determining adequate terrain clearance is provided in MET reports and is available on request from ATC. QNH values are given in whole hectopascols.

 

2. BASIC PROCEDURES

 

2.1 General

 

2.1.1. A common transition altitude 11000 ft (3350 M) is established for the three airports KATUNAYAKE/Colombo, RATMALANA/ Colombo and KAN KESANTLI RAI/Jaffna.

 

2.1.2 Considering the pressure and temperature variations affecting altimetry, it is found feasible to establish fixed transition levels at the airports in Sri Lanka, therefore, a transition level of FL 130 has been established while maintaining a minimum thickness of 1000 ft of transition layer. However in case of unusual changes in mean sea level pressure, the transition levels will be revised and aircraft be advised accordingly.

 

2.1.3 Vertical positioning of aircraft when at or below the transition altitude is expresses in terms of altitude whereas such positioning at or above the transition level is expressed in terms of flight levels. While passing through the transition layer, vertical positioning is expressed in terms of altitudes when descending, and in terms of flight levels when ascending.

 

2.1.4 Flight level zero is located at the atmospheric pressure level of 1013.2 hPa (29.92 ins.) Consecutive flight levels are separated by a pressure interval corresponding to 500 feet (152.4 metres) in the standard atmosphere.

 

Note-           Examples of the relationship between flight levels and altimeter indications are given in the following table, the metric equivalents being approximate.

  

FLIGHT LEVE

ALTIMETER INDICATION

NUMBER

FEET

METRES

10

1,000

300

15

1,500

450

20

2,000

600

50

5,000

1,000

100

10,000

3,050

150

15,000

4,550

200

20,000

6,100

250

25,000

7,600

300

30,000

9,150

350

35,000

10,650

400

40,000

12,200

450

45,000

13,700

 

2.2 Take-off and Climb

 

2.2.1 A QNH altimeter setting shall be made available to aircraft prior to take-off and climb clearance.

 

2.2.2 Vertical positioning of aircraft during climb is expressed in terms of attitudes until reaching the transition altitude above which vertical positioning is expressed in terms of flight levels.

 

2.12' All en-route flights shall be conducted in accordance with the semi-circular rule of cruising levels corresponding to the magnetic tracks as shown in the following table as will provide the required terrain clearance.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TRACK

 

 

 

 

 

 

From 000 to 179*

 

 

 

From 180 to 359

 

 

 

 

lFR Flights

 

VFR Flights

 

lFR Flights

 

VFR Flights

 

 

Altitude

 

 

Altitude

 

 

Altitude

 

 

Altitude

 

FL

Metres

Feet

FL

Metres

Feet

FL

Metres

Feet

FL

Metres

Feet

90

-

-

 

 

 

0

-

-

-

 

 

10

300

1000

 

-

-

20

600

2000

-

 

 

30

900

3000

35

1050

3500

40

1200

4000

45

1350

4500

50

1500

5000

55

1700

5500

60

1850

6000

65

2000

6500

70

2150

7000

75

2300

7500

80

2450

8000

85

2600

8500

90

2750

9000

95

2900

9500

100

3050

10000

105

3200

10500

110

3350

11000

115

3500

11500

120

3650

12000

125

3800

12500

130

3950

13000

135

4100

13500

140

4250

14000

145

4400

14500

150

4550

15000

155

4700

15500

160

4900

16000

165

5050

16500

170

5200

17000

175

5350

17500

180

5500

18000

185

5650

18500

190

5800

19000

195

5950

19500

200

6100

20000

205

6250

20500

210

6400

21000

215

6550

21500

220

6700

22000

225

6850

22500

230

7000

23000

235

7150

23500

240

7300

24000

245

7450

24500

250

7600

25000

255

7750

25500

260

7900

26000

265

8100

26500

270

8250

27000

275

8400

27500

280

8550

28000

285

8700

28500

290

8850

29000

300

9150

30000

310

9450

31000

320

9750

32000

330

10050

33000

340

10350

34000

350

1065

35000

360

10950

36000

370

11300

37000

380

11600

38000

390

11900

39000

400

12200

40000

410

12500

41000

420

12800

42000

430

13100

43000

440

13400

44000

450

13700

45000

460

14000

46000

470

14350

47000

480

14650

48000

490

14950

49000

500

15250

50000

510

15550

51000

520

15850

52000

etc.

etc.

etc.

etc.

etc.

etc.

etc.

etc.

etc.

etc.

etc.

etc.

 

Note -Some of the lower levels in the above table may not be usable due to terrain clearance requirements.

 

 

2.3.3 It is the pilot's responsibility to select a flight level/altitude which will give adequate terrain clearance using forecast pressure information.

 

 

2.4 Approach and Landing

 

 

2.4.1A QNH altimeter setting will be made available in the routine approach and landing instructions.

 

 

2.4.2 A OFE altimeter setting will be made available on request but reports to ATC should be made on the QNH value.

 

 

2.4.3 Vertical positioning of aircraft during approach shall be by reference to flight levels until reaching the transition level, below which vertical positioning shall be by reference to altitudes, unless otherwise instructed by ATC.

 

 

2.5 Missed Approach

 

 

2.5.1 The relevant portions of paras 2.1, 2.2, 2.3 and 2.4 shall be applied in case of a missed approach.

 

 

3. PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO OPERATORS (INCLUDING PILOTS)

 

 

3.1Flight Planning

 

 

 

3.1.1The level (s) at which, a flight is to be conducted shall be specified in a flight plan;

 

(a) in terms of flight level (s) if the flight is to be conducted at or above the transition level; and

 

(b) in terms of altitude(s) if the flight is to be conducted in the vicinity of an aerodrome and at or below the transition

altitude.

 

3.12 The flight level or levels selected for a flight shall-,

 

(a) ensure adequate terrain clearance at points along the route to be flown:

 

(b) satisfy air traffic services requirements; and

 

(c) be compatible with the application of the semi-circular cruising-levels rule.

 

Note - (i)short flights in the vicinity of an aerodrome may often be conducted only at altitudes below the transition

              altitude.

 

           (ii) flight levels are specified in the plan by number, and not in terms of feet or metres as in case of altitudes.

 

 

 

 

 

CONTROLLED AERODROMES

 

 

 

 

 

UPPER

 

 

TOWER

HOURS

LATERAL LIMITS

LIMIT

LANGUAGES

REMARKS

 

(UTC)

 

FT ALT

 

 

1

2

3

4

5

6

KKS

HO

CTR - Circle of radius

4000 ALT

English

SLAF

TOWER

 

10 NM centred

 

 

 

 

 

094731 N 0800404E

 

 

 

MINNERIYA

HO

CTR- Circle of radius

4000 ALT

English

SLAF

TOWER

 

10 NM centred

 

 

Local Flying

 

 

0803N 08058E

 

 

 

VAVUNIYA

HO

CTR- Circle of radius

4000 ALT

English

SLAF

TOWER

 

10 NM centred

 

 

Local Flying

 

 

0844N 08029E

 

 

 

WIRAWILA

HO

CTR- Circle of radius

4000 ALT

English

SLAF

TOWER

 

10 NM centred

 

 

Local Flying

 

 

0742N 08140E

 

 

 

 

HOLDING, APPROACH AND DEPARTURE PROCEDURES

GENERAL

 

1.1 The holding and approach to land procedures throughout the Colombo FIR conform with those contained in ICAO DOC 8168-OPS/611 (PANS-OPS). The procedures are applied without. exception.

 

2. APPROACH AND LANDING FLIGHTS

 

2.1, ATC clearances or control instructions for approach or clearance to the holding point will be issued to an arriving aircraft on initial contact with the appropriate ATC unit.

 

2.2 The clearance will specify the clearance limit, route and level to be flown. An expected approach time will be included if it is anticipated that the arriving aircraft will be required.

 

2.3 An aircraft approaching an aerodrome under IFR for the purpose of making a landing, shall conform to the appropriate holding and instrument approach procedures for the radio aid employed.

 

2.4 When an aircraft making an instrument approach by day, establishes continuous visual reference with the ground or water above the minimum flight altitude, it may discontinue the instrument approach. The pilot-in-command however shall be solely responsible for ensuring obstacle clearance from the time visual flight is assumed.

 

3. SURVEILLANCE RADAR APPROACHES

 

3.1 When the ILS is not available or when requested by the pilot-in-command and in conditions of bad weather, surveillance radar approaches will be available to arriving aircraft on both RWY 22 and RWY 04 at KATUNAYAKE/Colombo airport.

 

3.2 Surveillance radar approaches will be terminated at 2 NM from touchdown.

 

 

3.3 Pre-computed statutory heights will be passed to the pilot from 5 NIVI till 2 NM to the touchdown.

 

4. DEPARTING FLIGHTS

 

4.1 To expedite departure, ATC will require a succeeding aircraft to do a "Step up" climb beneath the altitude or level of a preceding aircraft maintaining vertical separation as applicable.

 

4.2 ATC may instruct a departing aircraft to arrive at a reporting point at a specified time or to be at a specified level, point or time as deemed necessary to effect separation with other aircraft. The pilot-in-command shall notify ATC if these instructions cannot be complied with.

 

4.3 In order to minimise communication and issue of involved instructions a system of Standard Instrument Departures (SIDs) have been established at KATUNAYAKE/Colombo airport on certain ATS routes.

 

 

STANDARD INSTRUMENT DEPARTURES (SID) - RWY 22.

KATUNAYAKE / COLOMBO AIRPORT

 

BASUR AVA DEP (G462 - Westbound)

Turn right passing KATNOR to intercept 298 R..Gross15 DME/KAT at or above 6000 ft. proceed to BASUR.

 

BASUR BRAVO DEP (G462 - Wastbound)

Turn right passing KATNOR to intercept 274R to KILOWEST (34 DME/KAT). Then turn right to intercept 303R of 'RML' VOR to TVM- Cross 15 DME/KAT at or above 6000 ft.

Note: Change over at 70 DME to TVM 123R.

 

DEMON ALFA DEP (R461 - North -Westbound)

Turn right-passing KAT/VOR. Track 331 R via CJ to DEMON. Cross, 15 DME/KAT- at or above 6000 ft.

 

TRANS ALT. 11,000 ft.

TRANS LEVEL FL 130

 

DABAR ALFA DEP (A465 – Northbound)

After passing KATNOR turn right to track KAT 008R via CA to DABAR cross 15 DME at or above 6000 ft.

  

DABAR BRAVO DEP (A465 – Northbound)

Turn left passing KATIVOR. Track to cross "CNL" at or above 4000 ft. and track 003R to CA and to DABAR

 

TRANS ALT. 11,000 ft.

TRANS LEVEL FL 130

 

BATIS BRAVO DEP (G465 - North-Eastbound)

Climb straight ahead turn right passing "ASL' to set course over KATNOR 075R. Cross "ASL" at or above 2000 ft. Cross KATNOR at or above 3500 ft. on return.

 

SUPSA ALFA DEP (G465 - South-Westbound)

Climb straight ahead. Turn right over KATNOR, track out on 249R. Cross 15 DME at or above 6000 ft.

 

HAMBA ALFA DEP (13340 F - South-Eastbound)

Turn left passing KATNOR. Track 135R to HAMBA,. Cross 15 DME at or above 6000 ft.

 

TRANS ALT. 11,000 ft.                                                                                                 

TRANS LEVEL FL 130

 

PDOX ALFA DEP (R461 - Eastbound)

After passing KATNOR turn left to track 0830M to intercept KAT 109R to IPDOX via DELTA (06 56; IN 080 42. 7E) 52 DME/K.AT and cross 10 DME at or above 4000 ft.

 

IPDOX BRAVO DEP (R461 - Eastbound)

After passing KATIVOR turn left to track 1140M (ASL) to intercept KAT 124R and proceed to intercept and track along RML 10OR to IPDOX. Cross 15 DMEXAT at or above 8000 ft.

  

TRANS ALT. 11,000 ft.

TRANS LEVEL FL 130

 

 

BATIS ALFA DEP (G465 - North-Eastbound)

Passing KAT/VOR turn left. Track out 053'M to intercept KAT 075R cross 20 DME at or above 8000 ft.

TRANS ALT. 11,000 ft.

TRANS LEVEL FL 130

Above RAC is an adaptation of AIP Sri Lanka. The rules and services are subjected to change on regular basis.